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|Title:||إنتاج الديزل الحيوي من الدهون الحيوانية|
|Authors:||سونا الهادى الصديق|
|Publisher:||جامعة إفريقيا العالمية|
|Citation:||جامعة أفريقيا العالمية- الدراسات العليا والبحث العلمى والنشر- كلية العلوم البحتة والتطبيقية- قسم الكيمياء التطبيقية والصناعية|
|Abstract:||The study aimed at producing biodiesel from animal fats (bovine fat) determining the physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel and comparing the physical and chemical properties of the product with the standard specification for biodiesel , the experiment began with collecting the sample (bovine fat ) washing It with warm water at a temperature of 70℃ , and then with methanol of a density of (0.79) its molarity is (46.07) to dry the sample from water , after which the grease was boiling in a 100℃ temperature heater for 20 minutes to extract the fat from the grease with a little sodium hydroxide added(10 gm ) to increase the extraction rate , then filter the product to get rid of the impurities the melted filtered fat ,two tests were conducted with the percentage of free fatty acids and the acid value to determine the steps of the process , the free fatty acids percentage(3% ), acid value (5ppm), after which 300 ml of melted filtered fat was taken and placed in a conical flask three arms (its capacity 500 ml ) to start the process , the conical flask was placed in a heater at a temperature of 65℃ and connected to mixing device (magnetic stirrer) and condenser with the use of a thermometer to measure the temperature of the fat when its temperature rise to 60 ℃ added 150 ml of methanol +2 ml of sulfuric acid the process continued (heating –condensation –mixing) for 2 hours , then transfer the mixture to a separation funnel after 24 hours the separated product was taken at the top of the funnel , and placed in another conical flask three arms placed in a heater at temperature of 65℃ when the sample temperature reached 60℃ ,125 ml of the potassium methoxy mixture(125 ml methanol +2 gm potassium hydroxide) was added, when the mixture was added , an instantaneous change occurred for the sample from yellow to brown (transformation esterification), the heating ,mixing and condensation processes continued for 3 hours, previous process (heating –condensation –mixing ) for 3 hours , after which the mixture was transferred to another separating funnel after 24 hours the emulsion separated into two layers at the top of the funnel is a light product with a light yellow color , and at the bottom of the funnel is a heavy product with a brown color (glycerol) , the washing of the light product began after separating the glycerol with hot water of a temperature 60℃ to get rid of the soap particles , after which the washing water was separated and the product was dried using a heater of a temperature 70℃ for 15 minutes, the product was collected for the purpose of analyzing it physically and chemically ,the results of the analysis were ,density (0.87g/cm3) ,specific gravity (0.87) ,calorific value (44.159 Mj/Kg( ,kinematics viscosity (6.0) ,pour point (21℃) ,cloud point (25℃) ، flash point (161℃) ,fire point (164℃) ,cetane number (55) ,sulfur content (0.0037%) ,acid value (0.3%) ,water and sediment (0) ,carbon residue (0.01%) ,as for the result of the chemical analysis using the GC-MS technique) 98.8( of the product were methyl ester of different molecular weights ,the highest being (methyl stearate 28.75 ,hexadecanoic acid methyl ester 26.05 ,octadecanoic acid methyl ester 24.42) ,the lowest is (cyclopropaneooctanoic acid methyl ester 0.02(,and the remainder of sample 0.2 cholesterol ,from the previous results it became clear that the produced biodiesel is less than the lowest degree stipulated in the standard specification for biodiesel in some properties ( Density ,Specific gravity ,Sulfur content ,Acid value ,Water and sediment ,Carbon residue ), and it is high quality in some properties (Fire and Flash point , Cetane number) and higher than them in some properties ( Viscosity ,Pour point ,Cloud point ) and that of the material from which biodiesel was produced ,when compared chemically the product is close to standard specification for biodiesel in the ratio of the some composites higher and lower ,to improve these properties we recommend adding petroleum diesel .|
|Appears in Collections:||أطروحات الماجستير|
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